The 4 Theses Of Sujit Choudhry About Constitutional Resilience In The Face Of A Populist Challenge

Sujit Choudhry is an internationally recognized figure when it comes to comparative constitutional law, having worked as an advisor to constitution building processes, governance, as well as rule of law processes for more than 2 decades in places such as Jordan, Egypt, Ukraine, South Africa, and more. He spoke or gave lectures in 30 countries, sometimes working during ceasefires or conditions of political violence. He has experience in technical advice to multi-party dialogues, leading stakeholder consultations, facilitating public dialogue sessions with stakeholders and civil society groups, drafting technical reports, engaging party leaders and parliamentarians, training civil servants and bureaucrats, and performing detailed advisory work.

Recently, he shared his thoughts in regards to the idea of enhancing the resilience of a constitution in order to ensure that it survives in the face of a populist challenge, setting out his argument in 4 theses. Before outlining his theses, he mentioned Mattias Kumm, who, as he points out, argues that the populist challenge to constitutional democracy is ‘systemic’, due to the fact that its not targeting one of the core features of constitutional democracy, but instead it is aiming at all of them. Sujit Choudhry notes that according to Kumm, populists deny the idea of legitimate opposition as well as the claim that pluralism is politics’ normal condition.

His first thesis begins with a plea for modesty, noting that constitutional democrats have to be realistic and clear-eyed about what good constitutional design can achieve. Mr. Choudhry considers that we have to steer a middle course between constitutional nihilism and constitutional idealism. Idealists argue that good constitutional design can largely eliminate the risk that populism poses, where as constitutional nihilists argue that there is little (if anything) that the constitutional design is capable of doing to secure a victory when facing a populist challenge.

The second thesis that he brings up is the idea that the challenge that populism poses to constitutional democracy is widespread but also misunderstood. He notes that commentators often times are conflating autocrats with populists. He points out that populists are different, due to the fact that they are claiming to represent a true electoral majority, and in some cases they might genuinely command support from the majority, even conditions of competitions are fair and free. The distinction between populists and autocrats, according to Mr. Choudhry, has important implications when it comes to the goals and means of constitutional resilience.

The third point that he raises notes that we should distinguish between two ideas of constitutional resilience. On one side there’s the view which considers the threats to constitutional democracy to be coming from populist political mobilization, with politics being seen in a negative light, and on the other side there’s the view which argues that constitutional stability rests on a political foundation of power relations, and that the constitutions are providing infrastructure for a partisan and pluralist contestation. He considers that turning our back upon politics will undermine constitutional order in the long run in the face of populist challenge.

The forth and final thesis of Sujit Choudhry states that if constitutional resilience has constitutional infrastructure for political competition at its heart, then we should be broadening the institutional viewfinder of constitutional law behind its narrow focus on electoral system design. He brings up the fact that Polish contributors to the workshop have highlighted the weakening of opposing rights when it comes to the legislative process, which has been an important dimension in regards to democratic backsliding. Constitutional designers have imagined the idea of opposing rights in terms of voting rules, but they are also encompassing other tools, such as agenda-setting, oversight powers, committee chairs, etc.

Find out more here http://www.dougsandler.com/news/sujit-choudhry

Businesswoman Isabel Dos Santos Share How To Grow Africa’s Economy Through Equality

Isabel dos Santos, at a worth of around $2.2 billion, is the richest woman in the world who is from Africa. She is an international businesswoman and a graduate of King’s College London where she earned a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering. She established Unitel International Holdings B.V. and is invested in a diverse group of companies across multiple industries (FinancialTimes).

She often engages in public speaking about developing Africa. She has spoken around the world about the need to invest in Africa including at the European Parliament. Isabel dos Santos promotes grassroots development and the incorporation of technology to grow Africa’s economy. She says everyone in Africa will benefit and have more opportunities to improve their lives.

Isabel  says that by providing people with a way to become economically successful their entire community will thrive. Technology, especially mobile, can be used to help people such as by providing them with remote working positions. According to Isabel dos Santos, African communities can become part of the global economy and grow in the same way that other developing nations around the world have done in the last few decades.

She says that one of the most pressing issues is the inequality between men and women in Africa. Like most other societies, Isabel dos Santos says that in Africa it is men who are generally supported as entrepreneurs. Women often can’t find anywhere near the same level of support for starting their own company. She says that by hindering women African societies are unnecessarily hindering their development and just making things harder for everyone to succeed.

Isabel spoke at the University of Warwick about this topic. She said that it is important to set long-term goals and work toward accomplishing them rather than expecting immediate results. The college students she talked to want to be involved in developing the economies of Africa when they graduate. She said that they should set longterm goals and subgoals. By doing so they can avoid burnout and see how much success they have had along the way.

More interesting facts at https://geeksnews.co.uk/isabel-dos-santos-unitel/

Jim Larkin Joins Michael Lacey in Promoting Human Rights In Arizona

By virtue of being human, it is believed that there is a particular entitlement to human, civil and migrant rights. The roots of human rights date back to the earlier generation, tradition, and societies where many cultures acquired documentation after World War II.

The birth of human rights was catalyzed by the development of World War II where most citizens embraced the initiative to bring change into the world.

Throughout the history of human rights development, individuals acquired civil, migrants and human rights as well as responsibilities through their families, group memberships, classes, religion, communities as well as states. Read more:Michael Larcey | Facebook and Michael Larcey | Twitter

Most communities settled for documented traditions where there was a golden rule for living. The rule dictated that every individual should treat others as they would wish to be treated. All societies received oral and written communication regarding the traditions of dealing with each other.

The Establishment of United Nations

The birth of human rights firmly emerged after the World War II. This occurred after the extermination of more than six million Jews, homosexuals as well as Sinti and Romani. The war affected disabled people who were terrified by the world. After the war, there were trails in the high court. These trials were conducted in Nuremberg as well as Tokyo. Officials from different parts of the world received punishment for committing crimes against humanity and peace.

Background

From the establishment of human rights, governments started to commit towards forming the United Nations. The primary objective of this movement was bolstering peace and international peace to prevent conflict. Most people wanted to make sure that there would be peace through freedom of speech, food, shelter, and nationality.

President Franklin Delano initiated the essence of the emerging human rights and principles in 1941. The call for human rights projected from different parts of the world. Citizens from abusive governments reported their cases to the United Nations with the aim of finding justice. These reports were used to reach justice.

Declaration

Through the declaration of human rights, most organizations supporting human rights, civil and migrant rights were established. One such organization is the National Network. Since its establishment, the organization has actively played the role of promoting peace among international migrants.

Also known as NNIRR, the organization has an active group of founding members for twenty years. Through its affiliate the Migrants Rights International, the global network works round the clock to strengthen the voice of migrants in international areas. Currently, NNIRR closely collaborates with the Coalition of Global Migration. This is a multi-sector crew that generated from MRI.

Frontera Foundation

Michael Lacey joined by Jim Larkin have been business partners for years. The duo was arrested by Sherriff Joe Arpaio concerning leaking information about court proceedings. The court settled the co-founders of two strong media houses Village Voice Media as well as Phoenix New Times at $3.75 million.

The two journalists received the amount, and with their passion for enhancing humanity, they channeled the entire amount to groups that focus on promoting humanity in Arizona. The duo continues to foster strong human rights foundations through the Frontera fund.

Learn more about Jim Larkin:

http://www.azcentral.com/story/news/politics/immigration/2014/12/16/proceeds-arpaio-suit-fund-asu-journalism-chair/20480479/
http://www.laceyandlarkinfronterafund.org/5-smart-ways-people-and-places-are-resisting-trumps-immigration-policies/